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Peshawari Chappal is a traditional footwear of Pakistan, worn especially by Pashtuns in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region. The shoe takes its name from the city of Peshawar, where it originates from. While chappal is the word for flip-flops, or sandals in Urdu. People in Peshawar the locals call the Peshawari Chappal Tsaple. Peshawari Chappal is worn by men casually or formally, usually with the Shalwar Kameez dress. Because of its comfort, it is used in place of sandal or slipper in Pakistan.

A black Peshawari chappal in Charsadda-style

It is a semi-closed footwear which consists of two wide straps where both strips are joined with the sole by crossing each other. The back side also has a strip with a buckle to tie according to the foot size and level of comfort. It is traditionally made with pure leather with its sole often made of truck tyre. It is available in many traditional designs and colors with various variations such as works of golden and silver threads, which give the shoe a more elegant look. Peshawari chappals have become increasingly popular in other parts of Pakistan; even wearing them with jeans has become a fashion trend, especially among urban youth. Peshawari Chappals are made from soft leather which is sown onto the rubber tyre sole. The materials are cheap, easily available and very hard wearing. Intricate designs are added to the leather upper before the shoe is put into a mould which stretches it to size.

In March 2014, Peshawari Chappal became the center of a global fashion debate when Sir Paul Smith made a similar shoe, which sold for £300. This prompted complaints on social media that this appropriated the culture and craft of its original Pakistan makers. As a result, the shoe’s description on the Paul Smith website was changed to read that it was “inspired by Peshawari Chappal”.

A new version of the chappal known as “Kaptaan Chappal” became very popular after it was gifted to Imran Khan by Haji Nooruddin Shinwari, in 2015.

PESHAWAR

Peshawar is a city in Pakistan, and it is the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. With a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, Peshawar is the largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the sixth-largest city in Pakistan. The region is named after Peshawar District which lies to the north and west and also borders Nowshera District to the east and Kohat Subdivision to the south.

It is also a cultural and economic hub of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The city is famous for its food and tourism as it is one of the oldest city of Pakistan with recorded history dates back to 539 BC.

Peshawar is also the largest Pashtun-majority city in Pakistan and is bilingual in Pashto and Hindko. Situated in the broad Valley of Peshawar near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar’s recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest cities in South Asia.

As the center of the ancient Gandhara region, Peshawar became the capital of the Kushan Empire under the rule of Kanishka; and was home to the Kanishka stupa, which was among the tallest buildings in the ancient world. Peshawar was then sacked by the Hephthalites, before the arrival of Muslim empires. The city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era, before becoming part of the Afghan Durrani Empire in December 1747, and serving as the Afghan winter capital from 1776 until the capture of the city by the Sikh Empire in March 1823, who were then followed by the British in 1846.

POPULATION

The population of Peshawar district in 1998 was 2,026,851. The city’s annual growth rate is estimated at 3.29% per year, and the 2016 population of Peshawar district is estimated to be 3,405,414.With a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, Peshawar is the sixth-largest city of Pakistan.

LANGUAGE

The primary native languages spoken in Peshawar are Pashto and Hindko, though English is used in the city’s educational institutions, while Urdu is understood throughout the city. The district of Peshawar is overwhelmingly Pashto-speaking, though the Hindko-speaking minority is concentrated in Peshawar’s old city, Hindko speakers in Peshawar increasingly assimilate elements of Pashto and Urdu into their speech.

RELIGION

Peshawar is overwhelmingly Muslim, with Muslims making up 98.5% of the city’s population in the 1998 census. Christians make up the second largest religious group with around 20,000 adherents, while over 7,000 members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community live in Peshawar. Hindus and Sikhs are also found in the city though most of the city’s Hindu and Sikh community migrated to India following the Partition of British India in 1947.

Though the city’s Sikh population drastically declined after Partition, the Sikh community has been bolstered in Peshawar by the arrival of approximately 4,000 Sikh refugees from conflict in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas; in 2008, the largest Sikh population in Pakistan was located in Peshawar. Sikhs in Peshawar self-identify as Pashtuns and speak Pashto as their mother tongue. There was a small, but, thriving Jewish community until the late 1940s. After the partition and the emergence of the State of Israel, Jews left for Israel.

ECONOMY

Peshawar’s economic importance has historically been linked to its privileged position at the entrance to the Khyber Pass the ancient travel route by which most trade between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent passed. Peshawar’s economy also benefited from tourism in the mid-20th century, as the city formed a crucial part of the Hippie trail.

Peshawar’s estimated monthly per capita income was ₨55,246 in 2015, compared to ₨117,924 in Islamabad, and ₨66,359 in Karachi. Peshawar’s surrounding region is also relatively poor Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s cities on average have an urban per capita income that is 20% less than Pakistan’s national average for urban residents.

Peshawar was noted by the World Bank in 2014 to be at the helm of a nationwide movement to create an ecosystem for entrepreneurship, freelance jobs, and technology. The city has been host to the World Bank assisted Digital Youth Summit  an annual event to connect the city and province’s youths to opportunities in the digital economy. The 2017 event hosted 100 speakers including several international speakers, and approximately 3,000 delegates in attendance.

CULTURE

MUSIC

After the 2002 Islamist government implemented restrictions on public musical performances, a thriving underground music scene took root in Peshawar. After the start of Pakistan’s Taliban insurgency in 2007–2008, militants began targeting members of Peshawar’s cultural establishment. By 2007, Taliban militants began a widespread campaign of bombings against music and video shops across the Peshawar region, leading to the closure of many others. In 2009, Pashto musical artist Ayman Udas was assassinated by Taliban militants on the city’s outskirts. In June 2012, a Pashto singer, Ghazala Javed, and her father were killed in Peshawar, after they had fled rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for the relative security of Peshawar.

Musicians began to return to the city by 2016, with a security environment greatly improved following the Operation Zarb-e-Azb in 2014 to eradicate militancy in the country. The provincial government in 2016 announced a monthly income of $300 to 500 musicians in order to help support their work, as well as a $5 million fund to “revive the rich cultural heritage of the province”.

SPORTS

There are hosts of sporting facilities in Peshawar. The most renowned are Arbab Niaz Stadium, which is the International cricket ground of Peshawar and Qayyum Stadium, which is the multi sports facilities located in Peshawar cantonment.

Cricket is the most popular sports in Peshawar with Arbab Niaz Stadium as the main ground coupled with Cricket Academy. There is also small cricket ground, Peshawar Gymkhana ground, which is located adjacent to Arbab Niaz Stadium, a popular club cricket ground. The oldest international cricket ground in Peshawar however is Peshawar Club Ground, which hosted the first ever test match between Pakistan and India in 1955. Peshawar’s domestic cricket team is Peshawar Panthers, while Peshawar Zalmi represents the city in the Pakistan Super League.

In 1975, the first sports complex, Qayyum Stadium was built in Peshawar while Hayatabad Sports Complex was built in early 1990s. Both Qayyum Stadium and Hayatabad Sports Complexes are multiple sports complexes with facilities for all major indoor and outdoor sports such as football, Field Hockey ground, Squash, Swimming, Gymnasium, Board Games section, Wrestling, Boxing and Badminton. In 1991, Qayyum Stadium hosted Barcelona Olympics Qualifier Football match between Pakistan and Qatar plus it also hosted National Games in 2010. Hockey and squash are also popular in Peshawar.

Famous places in Peshawar

Wazir Bagh

Wazir Bagh is an ancient historical place. It was constructed in 18 century in the era of Prince Shah Mahmood Durrani, the Durrani ruler. English envoy Sir Alexander Bumes liked it for rest during a trip, in 1832. Its foundation was laid down in 1810 by Sardar Father Muhammad Khan. It comprises of a mosque, pavilion, two spacious lawns, football ground and a pond with fountains in it and a football ground. Peepal trees were considered the reason for its beauty. It was famous as a picnic spot. But now it is used by children and youngsters to play tennis ball cricket.

Khalid Bin Waleed Bagh

At the center of the Saddar is the Khalid Bin Waleed or Company Bagh. An Ancient garden arrayed in the classic Mughal expressive style, it has a lot of big trees and are notable because it has rose bushes. It is large old trees and gorgeous big roses are a sigh to remember.

Mohabat Khan Mosque

Mohabbat khan Mosque was made in the era of Mughal Emperor in 1670 A.D. It’s named after Mohabbat khan, the Governor of Peshawa valley, who funded its construction. Masjid Mahabat Khan, is the merely structure that stands nowadays during a slim ally of the “Andar Shehar Bazaar” of the recent town, that reminds of the glory the Mughal kingdom and also their love for construction, Specially the mosques. The masque was later rebuilt by the Great British Government. The Masjid is open to tourist day and night, except throughout the prayers timings and specially the afternoon Friday prayers.

Bala Hisar Fort

Fort name is standing for “raised or great fort” represents the most significant locates of Peshawar, Pakistan. Its name was suggested by Timor Shah Durani an Afghani King. The fort was first built by Babur after conquering Peshawar in 1526. The Fort represented the central office for the Frontier corporations since 1949. At that place there’s a little museum presenting majestic scenes of city from its walls. Museum has many elbow rooms on a corridor. Each of them possesses personal composition, a few embodying full generals of West Pakistan, retrieved arms, Frontier corporations apparels”, and many more.

Jamrud Fort

About 18km east of Peshawar is Jamrud Fort. Constructed by Hari Singh Nalwa, the commanding officer of maharajah Ranjit Singh’s regular army popularly titled the fortress where it has constructor and founding father the Sikh commanding officer Hari Singh Nalwa took his last breath. It was attester to several fights between the Afghani and the Sikhs during the last mentioned conquering and principle of the state in the early 19th century.

Qissa Khwani Bazar

The absolute right place to have Peshawar’s busy ambiance is Qissa Khawani Bazaar. During the area of Kanishka merchandisers habituated arrive here, they used to manage business organization in daylight and in night they’d attend a lodge, seated close to fire, sipping Qahwa and habituated to say tales. Therefore the bazaar acquired its name “the Bazaar of Story Tellers”. This Qissa Khawani Bazaar ended up being customarily not only a market, nevertheless sometime of which careful travelers might renew themselves from remarkable Stories sewed by only experienced narrators.

Peshawar Museum

The Peshawar Museum is among the popular museums in south East Asia particularly for its Buddhist monuments of Gandhara Era. It was grounded in the memory of Queen Victoria in 1906-07. After accomplishment of the building, the museum was set up in November 1907 to reserve the Gandharan Sculptures excavated from the major Gandharan areas of Shah-Ji-Ki-Dheri Peshawar, Takht-i-Bahi, Sahri Bahlol, in District, Mardan and later on by Jamal Garhi and additional Gandharan places hollowed by the British learners. The core collection of Peshawar Museum includes Gandharan statues, Coins, Documents and copies of the Holy Quran, Impressions, Arms, Costumes, Jewelry, Kalash Models, Mughal era and later period Paintings, House hold stuffs, native and Persian handiworks.

The Cunningham clock tower

The clock in this tower is one among the pair (second one in England) presented by Queen Elizabeth UK. It’s a masterpiece the culture of civilizations of that era. This tower was established in the celebration of Golden Jubilee of India in 1900 A.D. It’s named after George Cunningham .Cunning hum was a political agent appointed in North Waziristan but later he was promoted to the Governor of NWPF.

Yadgaar Chowk

Yadgaar Chowk is the central square of the Old Peshawar. This is a good place to get positioned again after walking around in the baby streets. The memorial in the center of the square remembers the heroes of the war (1965), between Pakistan and India .It is the reunion place for the old men.

Sethi Houses

Sethi houses are situated in the Mohallah sethiyan. The Mohallah Sethian, the Commune of Sethis, named after the Sethis, had been famous for its titleholders and their love of architecture representing the most productive dealers, their kafilahs reaching the farthermost areas of Central Asia and on the far side of czarist Russia, they’d take back valuable physical objects from Those far off lands. The Sethi Houses thus became the soul Peshawar’s residential architecture. These houses are unique masterpiece, an art of Ghandara Civilization and South Asia.

Namak Mandi karahi

Namak Mandi karahi is a very delicious dish that is usually made from lamb. The fat of the lamb is specifically used to cook this with butter.  You can try this dish at home as well for this you must have the meat of lamb, lamb fat, butter, green chilies, tomatoes, and salt. It is a mouthwatering dish that is served with tandoori naan or Afghani roti.

Dum Pukht

Dum Pukht is a favourite dish of Peshawar that is prepared with the meat of mutton or beef. The pieces of meat are cooked in low heat in its individual fat along with onion, cardamom, potatoes, yogurt, red pepper, garam masala, salt, garlic paste, and oil. This tasty dish can be cooked in almost one hour to enjoy it with tandoori roti. 

Chapli kabab

Chapli kabab is a special variety of kebab which is prepared from the meat, beef or mutton. It is also called Peshawari kebab because this dish is originated from this city. These kebabs are very spicy and tasty. The ingredients that are used to make these kebabs are flour, garam masala, red chili powder, coriander leaves chopped tomatoes, onions, mashed eggs, ginger, coriander powder, baking powder, lemon juice, cumin seeds, paprika, salt, and oil.

Kabuli Pulao

Kabuli pulao is a rice dish in which basmati rice is normally used. The key ingredients that you require to cook this dish include a stew of lamb or beef, onion, garlic, cinnamon, cardamom, cumin seeds, cloves, water, salt, pepper, carrots, sugar, raisin, salt, almonds, and oil. It is a nice healthy dish because of different dry fruits and meat in it.

Mantu

Mantu is another appetizing meat dish in which the meat of lamb or beef is used.  This meat dumpling is cooked on multilayer steam. The dough that is used to make Mantu is cut into thin strips and filled with ground beef mixture. The edges of the dough are tightly sealed so that the filling doesn’t come out while cooking. It is served with a mixed vegetable sauce to eat.

Aushak

Aushak is actually prepared with fine dough that is packed with Afghan leek, mint yogurt and minced meat of beef or lamb. The meat sauce is made in vegetable or olive oil with finely chopped onion, garlic cloves, salt, black pepper, paprika, coriander, and tomato sauce. The wrappers for filling the mixture are normally in square or circular shape which can be easily purchased from the market or you can also make it as home as well.

Aush

Aush is a bit spicy dish that is generally cooked in a slow cooker, oven or soup pot. To make it in your home, you need to have ground beef, onion, diced tomatoes, minced garlic, crushed red pepper flakes, ground cumin, chili powder, dried mint, garam masala, garbanzo beans, chopped spinach, fettuccine, and sour cream.

Lamb with Spinach

This dish is an excellent combination of meat and vegetable. It is a healthy dish with good nutrition value. To prepare it, you have to make a mixture of garlic and onion in a blender, after that heat the pan with oil, lamb, green chilies, salt, spices, and this mixture. Mix tomatoes and water and cook it for some time. Add the spinach in it and then let it cook for almost 15 more minutes to get ready to serve.

Lamb Chops

Lamb chops are marinated with ginger garlic paste, cinnamon powder, salt, black pepper, white vinegar, papaya paste and oil for around 8 to 10 hours in order to get the soft, tender taste. You can girl them, cook in a pan or also bake in the oven as you like. It is a lip-smacking dish that is served with chili yogurt to enjoy.

Mutton Ribs

Put mutton ribs and add ginger garlic paste, mustard oil, soya sauce, vinegar, Worcestershire sauce lemon juice, raw papaya, yogurt and other spices in it. Keep it in the bowl for around 8 hours to marinate it properly after that grill it on charcoal till it’s entirely brown from both the side and then take it out. Heat a pan with the oil and place chopped tomatoes in it. Mix it till it becomes thick and then serve it with grilled mutton ribs.

Tikka

The Tikkas and Karahi available in Namak Mandi are one of their kind. A blend of Iranian and Afghani cooking, tikkas are simply meat flavored with salt. Rack of Ribs are also cooked in the same manner and are well liked too and are known as ‘Pukhtay’. While in karahi; meat pieces are cooked with tomato, garlic and ginger in animal fat (now chicken karahi is also made). A popular starter is patay tikka, which is liver of lamb covered and cooked in its fat.

Kawa

Peshawar is known for its Kawa (Green Tea) which has a unique flavor, and is usually served sweet. Sharbat-e-Sandal is a sweet, non-carbonated drink unusually found in markets in summer. It has a good taste and a yellowish-green transparent colour – look out for the black seeds. Served ice cold. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is a dry state, making alcohol hard to come by.

HISTORY

The history of Peshawar refers to the history of the city of Peshawar, Pakistan. Being among the most ancient cities of the region, Peshawar has for centuries been a center of trade between West Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia.

Ancient Peshawar

Peshawar was likely established as a village in the 5th-6th century BC within the cultural sphere of eastern ancient Persia. The region around Peshawar was known as Gandhara in Sanskrit, Hindko the language used by the Buddhist kingdoms which first ruled the area. The Gandhara region surrounding Peshawar found mention in the Parsi Zend Avesta as Vaēkərəta, the seventh most beautiful place on earth created by Ahura Mazda. It was known as the “crown jewel” of Bactria and also held sway over Takshashila (modern Taxila).

Kushan Peshawar

The city was then conquered by the Kushan Empire. The Kushan Emperor Kanishka, who ruled from 127 CE, moved the capital from Pushkalavati (present-day Charsadda district, in the Peshawar Valley) to Gandhara (Peshawar city) in the 2nd century CE. Buddhist missionaries arrived at Vedic, and animist Peshawar, seeking counsel with the Kushan rulers. Their teachings were embraced by the Kushans, who converted to Buddhism, assigning the religion with great status in the city. Following this move by the Kushans, Peshawar became a center of Buddhist learning.

The giant Kanishka stupa at Peshawar was built by King Kanishka to house Buddhist relics just outside the present-day Ganj Gate of the old city of Peshawar. The Kanishka stupa was said to be an imposing structure, as one traveled down from the Hindu Kush Mountains onto the Gandharan plains. The earliest account of the famous building was documented by Faxian, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, who was also a monk, who visited the structure in 400 AD and described it as being over 40 chang in height (approximately 120 metres (390 ft)) and adorned “with all precious substances”. Faxian continued: “Of all the stûpas and temples seen by the travelers, none can compare with this for beauty of form and strength.” The stupa was eventually destroyed by lightning, but was repaired several times; it was still in existence at the time of Xuanzang’s visit in 634 AD. A jeweled casket containing relics of the Gautama Buddha, and an inscription identifying Kanishka as the donor, existed at the ruined base of this giant stupa the casket was excavated, by a team supervised by Dr. D.B. Spooner in 1909, from a chamber under the very centre of the stupa’s base.

Hindu Shahis and Muslim conquest

The Kabul Shahis ruled the Kabul Valley and Gandhara (modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan) from the decline of the Buddhist Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century CE. The Shahis are generally split up into two eras: the earlier Buddhist Shahis and the later Hindu Shahis, with the change-over thought to have occurred sometime around 870 CE after which Hinduism gained primacy in the region.

The kingdom was known as the Kabul Shahan or Ratbelshahan from 565 CE to 670 CE, when the capitals were located in Kapisa and Kabul, and later Udabhandapura, also known as Hund, for its new capital.

The Hindu Shahis under Jayapala, is known for his struggles in defending his kingdom against the Ghaznavids in the modern-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan region. Jayapala saw a danger in the consolidation of the Ghaznavids and invaded their capital city of Ghazni both in the reign of Sebuktigin and in that of his son Mahmud, which initiated the Muslim Ghaznavid and Hindu Shahi struggles. Sebuk Tigin, however, defeated him, and he was forced to pay an indemnity. Jayapala defaulted on the payment and took to the battlefield once more. Jayapala, however, lost control of the entire region between the Kabul Valley and Indus River.

In the year 1001, soon after Sultan Mahmud came to power and was occupied with the Qarakhanids north of the Hindu Kush, Jayapala attacked Ghazni once more and upon suffering yet another defeat by the powerful Ghaznavid forces, near present-day Peshawar. After the Battle of Peshawar, he committed suicide because his subjects thought he had brought disaster and disgrace to the Shahis.

Jayapala was succeeded by his son Anandapala, who along with other succeeding generations of the Shahis took part in various unsuccessful campaigns against the advancing Ghaznavids but were unsuccessful. The Hindu rulers eventually exiled themselves to the Kashmir Siwalik Hills. Mahmud punished the Pashtuns, who had sided with the Hindus, and, as they converted entirely to Islam, the Pashtuns remained loyal to their new allegiance.

Pashtun and Mughal rule (1451–1758)

Peshawar was a northwestern regional center of the Pashtun Lodi Empire which was founded by Bahlul Lodi in 1451 and centered at Delhi. Peshawar was also incorporated into the Mughal domains by the mid of 16th century. The founder of the Mughul dynasty that would conquer South Asia, Babur, who hailed from the area that is currently Uzbekistan, arrived in Peshawar and founded a city called Bagram, where he rebuilt a fort in 1530 AD.

The Pashtun emperor Sher Shah Suri, who founded the Sur Empire centered at Delhi, turned Peshawar’s renaissance into a boom when he ran his Delhi-to-Kabul Shahi Road as a northwestern extension of the Grand Trunk Road through the Khyber Pass and Peshawar in the 16th century. Later Babur’s grandson, Akbar the Great, recorded the name of the city as Peshawa, meaning “The Place at the Frontier” or “Near Water”[citation needed] and expanded the bazaars and fortifications. The Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in South Asia, with many settling in the Peshawar region.

Khushal Khattak, the Pashtun warrior poet, was born near Peshawar, and his life was intimately tied to the city. As an advocate for Afghan independence, he was an implacable foe of the Mughal rulers, especially Aurangzeb.

Durrani Peshawar (1747–1823)

In December 1747, Peshawar joined the Pashtun Durrani Empire of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who used the Bala Hissar fort in Peshawar as his royal residence. In 1776, Ahmad Shah’s son, Timur Shah Durrani, chose Peshawar as his winter capital. Up to the early 19th century, Peshawar was the winter capital of the Afghan Empire, and the Bala Hissar forn was the royal residence of Afghan kings. Pashtuns from Peshawar participated in the incursions of South Asia during the Durrani Empire. Peshawar remained under Durrani rule till the Sikhs captured Peshawar in March 1823.

Maratha attack (1758-1759)

During the Afghan rule, Peshawar was attacked and captured by the Maratha Empire of western India, which conquered Peshawar on 8 May 1758. A large force of Pashtuns under Ahmad Shah Durrani then re-conquered Peshawar in early 1759.

Sikh conquest (1823–1846)

Until 1823, Peshawar was controlled by Afghanistan, but was invaded by the Sikh Empire of Punjab. The arrival of a party led by British explorer and former agent of the East India Company, William Moorcroft was seen as an advantage, both in dealings with Kabul and for protection against the Sikhs of Lahore. Moorcroft continued to Kabul in the company of Peshawari horses and thence to the Hindu Kush. In 1823, Peshawar was captured by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and paid a nominal tribute until it was finally annexed in 1834 by the Sikhs, after which the city fell into steep decline. Many of Peshawar’s famous Mosques and gardens were destroyed by the Sikhs at this time. An Italian was appointed by the Sikhs as administrator. Acting on behalf of the Sikhs, Paolo Avitabile, unleashed a reign of fear – his time in Peshawar is known as a time of “gallows and gibbets.” The city’s famous Mahabat Khan, built in 1630 in the Jeweler’s Bazaar, was badly damaged and desecrated by the Sikh conquerors.

The Gurdwara Bhai Joga Singh and Gurdwara Bhai Beeba Singh were constructed in the city by Hari Singh Nalwa to accommodate the influx of Sikh immigrants from the Punjab. While the city’s Sikh population drastically declined after the partition of India, Peshawar’s Sikh community has re-established itself, bolstered by Sikh refugees and by approximately 4,000 refugees from the Tribal Areas; in 2008, the largest Sikh population in Pakistan was located in Peshawar. Sikhs in Peshawar self-identify as Pashtuns and speak Hindko and Pashto as their mother tongues.

Afghan attempts to reconquer Peshawar

An 1835 attempt to re-occupy the city by the Afghan Emir Dost Mohammad Barakzai failed when his army declined to engage in combat with the Dal Khalsa. However Barakzai’s son, Wazir Akbar Khan, succeeded in regaining control of the city in the Battle of Jamrud of 1837. Following this, Peshawar was annexed by the British East India Company after the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1845-46.

British Empire (1846–1947)

Following the defeat of the Sikh’s in the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1845-46, territories in the Punjab were also captured by British East India Company. During the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the 40,000 members of the native garrison were disarmed without bloodshed; the absence of brutality meant that Peshawar was not affected by the widespread devastation that was experienced throughout the rest of British India and local chieftains sided with the British after the incident. British control remained confined within the city walls as vast regions of the Frontier province outside the city were claimed by the Kingdom of Afghanistan. The vast mountainous areas outside of the city were mapped out only in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand, foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who collaboratively demarcated the boundary of British-controlled areas with the Afghan ruler at the time, Abdur Rahman Khan.

The British laid out the vast Peshawar Cantonment to the west of the city in 1868, and made the city its frontier headquarters. Additionally, several projects were initiated in Peshawar, including linkage of the city by railway to the rest of British India and renovation of the Mohabbat Khan mosque that had been desecrated by the Sikhs. The British also constructed Cunningham clock tower, in celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and, in 1906, constructed Victoria Hall (now home of the Peshawar Museum) in memory of Queen Victoria. The British greatly contributed to the establishment of Western-style education in Peshawar with the establishment of Edwardes College and Islamia College in 1901 and 1913, respectively—these were established in addition to numerous other schools, many of which are run by the Anglican Church. For better administration of the region, Peshawar and the adjoining districts were separated from the Punjab Province in 1901.

Peshawar emerged as a centre for both Hindko and Pashtun intellectuals. Hindko speakers, also referred to as Khaarian (“city dwellers” in Pashto), were responsible for the dominant culture for most of the time that Peshawar was under British rule. Whereas before it was the Pashtuns and Mughals who beautified and brought culture to the region, until the Sikhs brought the city to shambles and deterioration.

Peshawar was the scene of a non-violent resistance movement that was led by Ghaffar Khan, a disciple of Mohandas Gandhi. In April 1930, Khan led a large group of locals, in a peaceful protest in Qissa Khawani Bazaar, against discriminatory laws that had been enacted by the British rulers   hundreds were killed when British horses opened fire on the demonstrators.

Post-independence history

After the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan in 1979 Peshawar served as a political centre for anti-Soviet Mujahideen, and was surrounded by huge camps of Afghan refugees. Many of the refugees remained there through the civil war which broke out after the Soviets were defeated in 1989, the rule of the Taliban, and the invasion by allied forces in late 2001. Peshawar would replace Kabul and Qandahar as the centre of Pakhtun cultural development during this tumultuous period. Additionally, Peshawar managed to assimilate many of the Pakhtun Afghan refugees with relative ease, while many other Afghan refugees remained in camps awaiting a possible return to Afghanistan.

Peshawar continues to be a city that links Pakistan to Afghanistan and has emerged as an important regional city in Pakistan and remains a focal point for Pakhtun culture.

Peshawar is the famous city of Pakistan. It is Famous for many reasons but Peshawari chappal is most famous all over in Pakistan and around the world. Offerpk offers you the best quality, made with pure material, low price high quality Peshawari Chappal in Pakistan.

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